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Quartus / Linux: Programming the FPGA with command-line

Command-line?

Yes, it much more convenient than the GUI programmer. Loading an FPGA with a bitstream file is a recurring task. It's always the same file to the same FPGA on the same board connected to the same computer. And somehow the GUI tools turn it into a daunting ceremony (and sometimes even a quiz, when it can’t tell exactly which device is connected, so I’m supposed to know the exact one).

With command line its literally a matter picking the command from bash history, and press Enter. And surprisingly enough, the command line tool doesn’t ask the silly questions that the GUI tool does.

First, some playing around

Set up the environment:

$ /path/to/quartus/15.1/nios2eds/nios2_command_shell.sh

To list all devices that are found (the cable is auto-detected):

$ quartus_pgm --auto
Info: *******************************************************************
Info: Running Quartus Prime Programmer
    Info: Version 15.1.0 Build 185 10/21/2015 SJ Lite Edition
    Info: Copyright (C) 1991-2015 Altera Corporation. All rights reserved.
[ ... ]
    Info: agreement for further details.
    Info: Processing started: Sun May 27 15:06:22 2018
Info: Command: quartus_pgm --auto
Info (213045): Using programming cable "USB-BlasterII [2-5.1]"
1) USB-BlasterII [2-5.1]
  02B040DD   5CGTFD9(A5|C5|D5|E5)/..
  020A40DD   5M2210Z/EPM2210

[ ... ]

Note that listing the devices as shown above is not necessary for loading the bitstream. It might be useful to tell the position of the FPGA in the JTAG chain, maybe. Really something that is done once to explore the board.

jtagd

It’s important to be aware of this deamon, which listens to TCP/IP port 1309. It’s responsible for talking with the JTAG adapter through the USB bus, so both the GUI programmer and command line tool rely on it. If there’s no daemon running, both of these start it.

But if you use multiple versions of Quartus, this may be a source of confusion, in particular if you make a first attempt to load an FPGA with an older version, and then try a newer one. That’s because the newer version of Quartus will keep using the older version of jtagd. And this older jtagd may not support FPGAs that the newer version of Quartus does. So the conclusion is that if weird things happen, this may fix it, and won’t hurt anyhow:

$ killall jtagd

Loading the FPGA

quartus_pgm displays most of its output in green text. Generally speaking, if there’s no text in red, all went fine.

$ quartus_pgm -m jtag -o "p;path/to/file.sof"

Alternatively, add the position of the JTAG in the JTAG chain explicitly (in particular if it’s not the first device). In this case it’s @1, meaning it’s the first device in the JTAG chain. If it’s the second device, pick @2 etc.

$ quartus_pgm -m jtag -o "p;path/to/file.sof@1"
Info: *******************************************************************
Info: Running Quartus Prime Programmer
    Info: Version 15.1.0 Build 185 10/21/2015 SJ Lite Edition
    Info: Copyright (C) 1991-2015 Altera Corporation. All rights reserved.
    Info: Your use of Altera Corporation's design tools, logic functions
    Info: and other software and tools, and its AMPP partner logic
    Info: functions, and any output files from any of the foregoing
    Info: (including device programming or simulation files), and any
    Info: associated documentation or information are expressly subject
    Info: to the terms and conditions of the Altera Program License
    Info: Subscription Agreement, the Altera Quartus Prime License Agreement,
    Info: the Altera MegaCore Function License Agreement, or other
    Info: applicable license agreement, including, without limitation,
    Info: that your use is for the sole purpose of programming logic
    Info: devices manufactured by Altera and sold by Altera or its
    Info: authorized distributors.  Please refer to the applicable
    Info: agreement for further details.
    Info: Processing started: Sun May 27 15:35:02 2018
Info: Command: quartus_pgm -m jtag -o p;path/to/file.sof@1
Info (213045): Using programming cable "USB-BlasterII [2-5.1]"
Info (213011): Using programming file p;path/to/file.sof@1 with checksum 0x061958E1 for device 5CGTFD9E5F35@1
Info (209060): Started Programmer operation at Sun May 27 15:35:05 2018
Info (209016): Configuring device index 1
Info (209017): Device 1 contains JTAG ID code 0x02B040DD
Info (209007): Configuration succeeded -- 1 device(s) configured
Info (209011): Successfully performed operation(s)
Info (209061): Ended Programmer operation at Sun May 27 15:35:09 2018
Info: Quartus Prime Programmer was successful. 0 errors, 0 warnings
    Info: Peak virtual memory: 432 megabytes
    Info: Processing ended: Sun May 27 15:35:09 2018
    Info: Elapsed time: 00:00:07
    Info: Total CPU time (on all processors): 00:00:03

If anything goes wrong — device mismatch, a failure to scan the JTAG chain or anything else, it will be hard to miss that, because of the errors written in red. The good thing with the command line interface is that every attempt starts everything from the beginning, so just turn the board on and try again.

Cyclone 10 GX FPGA development kit

This board caused me some extra trouble, so a few words about it. When this board is connected to a computer, it appears as 09fb:6810, however after attempting to load the FPGA (note the "@2" in the end) with:

$ quartus_pgm -m jtag -o "p;thecode.sof@2"
Error (213019): Can't scan JTAG chain. Error code 86.

The device's ID changes to 09fb:6010. So there's clearly some reprogramming of the firmware (the system log shows a disconnection and reconnection with the new ID). The board is detected as GX0000406 by Quartus' GUI Programming Tool, but clicking "Auto Detect" results in "Unable to scan device chain. Hardware is not connected".

OK, so how about trying a scan?

$ quartus_pgm --auto
[ ... ]
Info (213045): Using programming cable "10CGX0000406 [1-5.1.2]"
1) 10CGX0000406 [1-5.1.2]
  Unable to read device chain - Hardware not attached

The problem in my case was apparently that the jtagd that was running was started by an older version of Quartus, which didn’t recognize Cyclone 10 devices. So follow the advice above, and kill it. After that, programming with the command above worked with Quartus Pro 17.1:

$ quartus_pgm --auto
[...]
Info (213045): Using programming cable "USB-BlasterII [1-5.1.2]"
1) USB-BlasterII [1-5.1.2]
  031820DD   10M08SA(.|ES)/10M08SC
  02E120DD   10CX220Y
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